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The CNG is the French national research center which enables a response to scientific questions necessitating high throughput sequencing and genotyping thanks to the development and deployment of innovative integrated technologies. The organization of the CNG enables optimization of genetic and genomic research on human diseases by creating indispensable links between cohort constitution (DNA samples), identification of the responsible genes, and study of the transcriptome and epigenome.
List of the main projects of the Institut de Génomique
Wheat, coffee, oilseed rape, grappe, banana
is a recurrent theme in eukaryote genome evolution. Many extant species have undergone
a polyploidization in their recent past (particularly plants), and the advent
of comparative genomics has revealed ancient duplication events in organisms
not previously known to have a polyploid ancestor (like vertebrate animals and
some fungi; Putnam N.H. et al., Nature 453:1064 (2008); Jaillon O. et al. Nature 431:946 (2004); Kellis et al. Nature 428:617
duplicated genes are lost after a whole-genome duplication (WGD), to the point
that in old polyploids, only a small number of genes are still present in
duplicate. In plants, polyploidization is hypothesized to have had a huge
impact on speciation and evolution of novel traits. Our group has previously published
important findings on plant evolution through the grapevine genome sequence
analysis. We developed this thematic recently by studying the duplicated past
of Cacao, banana and Clementina (Genome analysis reveals the origins of
domesticated Citrus species. Gmitter
F., et al., submitted). Two other genomes are being analysed, the highly
poilyploid rapeseed and the ancestral organization from coffee tree.
Vitis vinifera (2n=38) is
part of the Vitaceae family, which comprises 17 genera, mostly
woody or herbaceous lianas primarily inter-tropical in their distribution.
The domestication and cultivation of wheat (soft wheat and hard wheat) was a founding element in the first human civilizations in the Fertile Crescent. Pour préparer le séquençage complet du génome, le Genoscope a séquencé le chromosome 3B en collaboration avec l'INRA Clermont-Ferrand
The species of banana chosen (Musa acuminata, accession Pahang HD) represents the species which enters into the composition of dessert and cooking bananas; its genome consists of 600 million base pairs, spread over 11 different chromosomes, each present in two identical copies (homozygosity). The sequencing project (reference) was conducted in collaboration with the CIRAD (Montpellier).
An international study coordinated by researchers from the CEA (Genoscope), CIRAD, the CNRS, the IRD and the University of Buffalo (USA), involving many laboratories, has identified for the first time a reference for coffee. The results are published in the 5 September 2014 issue of the journal Science .
An International consortium of more than 30 research institutes, coordinated by scientists at INRA and CEA-Genoscope and associating CNRS and University of Evry, just succeeded in deciphering the complex genome of the recent oilseed rape1 (Brassica napus L, also known as rapeseed, rape or canola), the most important oilseed crop in Europe, Canada, and Australia. This scientific breakthrough paves the way to a fundamental understanding of the origins of crop species through polyploidy (consisting in inter-species hybridization and association of several genomes) and provides a foundational resource for accelerating on-going breeding efforts in the crop. This work is published in Science on 22 August 2014.
A major step forward for understanding the species’ biology and its improvement
An international consortium (ICGS: International Cocoa Genome Sequencing Consortium), coordinated by a team from CIRAD in Montpellier (France), is publishing an article inNature Genetics on the sequencing and the first detailed analyses of the cocoa genome Theobroma cacao , the plant that chocolate comes from.
CEA is a French government-funded technological research organisation in four main areas: low-carbon energies, defense and security, information technologies and health technologies. A prominent player in the European Research Area, it is involved in setting up collaborative projects with many partners around the world.